The Symbiosis in Karmiel and Shafdan interconnects 2 SMEs from the agro-food sector with a public wastewater utility, linking an industrial wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with a municipal WWTP. The agro-industrial sector includes agriculture, food industry, olive oil mills and water treatment. The symbiosis will enable to protect the current WWTP of Karmiel and Shafdan that are usually exposed to sudden shocks of strong and problematic agro-industrial wastewater (i.e, OMW, Slaughterhouse, winery). Karmiel municipal WWTP faces problems due to shock loads of olive mill wastewater (OMW) during the harvest period and due to illegal discharges from slaughterhouses in the area. No solution has been found yet for an upstream and on-site wastewater pre-treatment which is technically feasible, economically viable and socially acceptable. Thus, when happens, the wastewater is discharged without adequate treatment. Shafdan WWTP of Tel Aviv is Israel’s largest WWTP (400000 m³/d) and collects, treats and reclaims municipal wastewater in this rapidly growing area. Suitable pre-treatment of agro-industrial wastewater at the Shafdan site will enable the continuation of the current nature-based reuse system and supply water for agricultural activity in the Negev desert, even when receiving more agro-industrial wastewater in the future, in addition to paretially reduce the energy demand, decrease the sludge production as well as inccrese the biogas production.